The political influence of Egypt in the Levant during the period (1580-1187 .BC)

Document Type : Original Article


Wasit Governorate Education Directorate / Iraq


The research dealt with the political influence of Egypt in the Levant during the period (1580-1187 BC). The research consists of three axes, the first axis was entitled (The geopolitical location of the Levant), which is one of the regions of Western Asia, in the region that extends from the Taurus Mountains to the north. As far as North Sinai in the south, and from the Mediterranean in the west, to the Badia and Mesopotamia in the east, which includes the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, the State of Palestine, the Syrian Arab Republic and the Lebanese Republic, and by virtue of the geographical location of Bilad al-Sham and its connection with its neighbors - it was forced to act as a mediator and be affected by the surrounding force, so its civilization became influenced by others. Among the civilizations of the nations adjacent to it, the importance of the Levant did not differ in relation to the Nile countries and the pharaohs of the modern state during the era of the eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties during the period (1580-1187 BC), including for defensive purposes, after the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt and the extension of their influence to the Syrian regions, this step is considered as A security valve for it, and also the formation of an empire for it in West Asia until it reached the limits of the Levant, and also for commercial purposes by virtue of its location, as controlling the Levant guarantees the progress of the exchange To trade between Egypt and the Levant, especially with the Phoenician coast, the second axis entitled ( the political influence of Egypt in the Levant during the Eighteenth Dynasty during the period (1580-1308 BC)), which included the military campaigns carried out by the kings of the Eighteenth Dynasty; as Egypt sought In building its empire by annexing the regions of the Levant, placing a large part of Syria under its control, and the most prominent king of the eighteenth family was Thutmose III (1479-142 BC), after his victory in the Battle of Megiddo, he limited the expansionist ambitions of the HurrianMitan kings towards Syria until He arrived in Lebanon. As for Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) (1360-1343 BC), he lost some of its possessions to Egypt in Asia due to the rebellion of the Syrian cities due to their subordination to Egyptian rule, and also the Egyptians followed a new administrative system in the Levant, as Gaza City was in The beginning of the modern state served as the main center and stronghold for the Egyptian commissioners / observers, so the local princes were under the control of these Egyptians, in addition to the presence of administrative centers for the Egyptians in Syria and Palestine such as Iankhmu, Prince of Byblos, and Dayaa, the king of Gaza, and Aya, the Emir of Sidon, and each of these centers represented the residence of the deputy The Egyptian king or A. To the agent / commissioner, this indicates that during this period of the rule of Thutmose III, the process of collecting tribute from West Asia through this largely administrative system, which was under the control of the Egyptian government, this system was successful and remained integrated for a century after that, it referred to it. The letters of Tell elAmarna in the fourteenth century B.C. There are also three centers that served as Egyptian administrative and military bases spread in the Levant. The first base is in the (Amuro) region. The second base is located in the Obi district, which is Damascus, and the third base includes Canaan and its center in Gaza as well as the exploitation of the Pharaohs. For minerals, the most prominent of which is silver and copper found in the Levant, the third axis entitled (The political influence of Egypt in the Levant during the nineteenth dynasty during the period (1308-1187 BC)) has emerged from King Seti I (1296-1279) and his son Ramses II ( 1279-1212 B.C.) through their foreign policy towards the Levant and reaching Syria and Lebanon through the campaigns that were sent there that aimed to impose the prestige of the Egyptian influence in both Palestine and southern Syria and during the reign of Ramses II the Egyptian empire in Asia was limited to fils Mud, Lebanon and a small part of Syria, especially the ports that were on the shore